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The Writing Process | 5 Steps with Examples

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The writing process is a term used interchangeably with the terms "generating ideas" or "creating content". It refers to the thought processes and actions needed by a writer to produce texts. The process includes prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.

The steps involved in the writing process are not always linear. They may be completed within one session (for example), or over a period of time (such as across several weeks). There are variations depending on educational context, genre being written, purpose of text production, and individual preference. Writing scholars refer to this framework as "a recursive loop", meaning that writers will repeat steps when moving through the writing process.

There are many traditional stages in the writing process, often including "planning" and "organizing", but many paper writing service prefer to approach the composing (writing) of a text differently. For example, much writing by journalists is not planned in advance because they want their readers to get all information immediately:

There are several steps in the scientific writing process which differ from more creative means of communication:

This outline reflects Langan's description of a typical engineering report at Georgia Tech; faculty may assign similar tasks with different names for each part.

(1.) This would include exchanging ideas with another individual or group and basic research on an abstract idea or topic. (2.) The research question is defined and refined based upon some evidence related to the researched topic(s). (3.) The hypothesis (main direction) is determined and the variables are identified. (4.) Research is conducted to collect data that will support or refute a hypothesis. Data may be collected through experimentation, observation, survey, interviews, etc. (5.) Once enough evidence has been gathered a conclusion(s) can be made and the research problem(s) established at the beginning of the project can be answered or refuted by a convincing argument using data obtained from the research.

Other authors use their own forms with some common features:

The creative process often involves some level of self-reflection about one's writing goals and strategies for reaching them as well as decisions about presentation prior to actual drafting production. Some argue that this aspect of the process can be a way to focus and organize ideas, and that it may also identify important relationships among these ideas. It is somewhat varied in its approach depending on educational context, genre being written, purpose of text production, and individual preference. Writers are often advised to experiment with their own styles of writing as they feel comfortable with them while keeping track of their perceptions about the knowledge gained through writing tasks.

According to Cliff (1991), there are three general approaches that writers take when approaching writing: linear thinking, non-linear thinking or multi-linear thinking. Linear thinkers tend to be practical in their approach; they think linearly because they have certain things planned out before moving forward such as outlining an essay before really starting to write it. They also enjoy planning and organizing their work because they like to have everything in order before moving forward. Non-linear thinkers (also known as holistic thinkers) tend to be a bit more spontaneous than linear thinkers; they are less likely to outline an essay in its entirety before really starting to write it because they like for the flow of writing to come naturally. Non-linear writers also enjoy keeping track of all the ideas that rise from initial write paper for me brainstorming sessions, but don't necessarily plan out these ideas ahead of time. Multi-linear thinkers try out both linear and non-linear thinking depending on what works best for them on any given writing project. For example, a multi-linear thinker may start off with some outlining if he or she has trouble conveying ideas, but after the main idea is set out, they may go back and simply write from their point of view. Cliff suggests that since the multi-linear thinker works with more than one form of thinking, his or her writing will be much better developed because he/she is able to come up with a variety of perspectives.

In first language acquisition, three stages are often distinguished in the development of a child's literacy ability: literal or "print awareness" (being aware that words on a page represent individual things), associative or metaphorical ("picture books"), and discourse ("comprehension") (Turner). Stage 1 can be described as prewriting; it involves making marks on paper without any conscious relationship to writing. The child may write letters or stick figures, but there is no relationship between the marks made on paper and the printed word they represent; they are completely independent of each other. This stage is sometimes referred to as "prewriting". Stage 2 involves symbolic play in which a meaningful connection (i.e., one that tells us something important about the writer's intentions) exists between what appears on paper and what it represents. For instance, a picture of a sad face drawn by a child might mean "I am sad." Stage 3 generally occurs in school-aged children (ages 6–12). It refers to understanding print as an instrument for communication—the ability to read and understand what someone else has written (Turner).

Prewriting, a necessary process in producing written work, is one of self-monitoring. Students visualize or otherwise think about what they are writing and then write it down on paper. In lower grades, prewriting often involves drawing a picture, listing words to describe the idea being presented, copying words from a dictionary or phrase book (i.e., making an abecedary), composing "finger plays," etc. Research has shown that even second graders can benefit from drafting instructional materials (Turner).




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